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Acourse in Energy Conversion .Dr Mohammed Ali Moqbel:دار جامعة عدن للطباعة والنشر تصدر كتاب بعنوان

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Acourse in Energy Conversion .Dr Mohammed Ali Moqbel:دار  جامعة عدن للطباعة والنشر تصدر كتاب بعنوان



أصدرت دار جامعة عدن للطباعة والنشر كتاب جديد ضمن

سلسلة الكتاب الجامعي لعام 2013

بعنوان: 


A course in Energy Conversion 

Dr Mohammed Ali Moqbel



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ونستعرض هنا مقدمة الكتاب ومحتوياته

This book is planned to serve as a text book for courses in Energy Conversion and Power Plant Engineering taught to students of Engineering degree. The book is prepared mainly for the use of Mechanical Engineering students, but it will be useful as a text book for students of Electrical Engineering also.

 The book is the outgrowth of the lecture notes used in a course of energy conversion and power plant engineering over several years. It contains sufficient material for a one semester course which may be presented at undergraduate level.

Throughout the text, attempt has been made to present the topic matter in a simple and clear way. Numerous solved examples are given to illustrate the equations explained in the text.

The book is organized into 7 chapters.  Chapter 1 deals with a fundamental of fuels and combustions, such as types of fuel, fuel characteristics, complete and incomplete combustion of fuels. Chapter 2 deals with principle theory of steam boilers and condensers. Basic theory of steam turbine concerned with types, power, efficiency, velocity diagrams are discussed in chapter 3.  The book is then proceeds in chapter 4, 5 and 6 to cover fossil-fired power plants cycles: Rankine cycle, Brayton cycle and combined cycle. Additional examples in steam and gas turbines cycles with neat sketches will be highlight the applications of steam and gas power plants and combined cycles. Finally chapter 7 discusses the fundamentals of photovoltaic energy conversion. This chapter is focused to give good idea on the applications of PV system highlighted by practical examples for load calculation and PV and storage battery selections.

 The author has drawn heavily from the existing literature on the subjects, for which they gratefully acknowledge.

The author is indebted to the staff of Mechanical Engineering Department - Faculty of Engineering – Aden University for their helpful and encouragement.

CONTENTS

1
FUELS AND COMBUSTION
1
1.1
Fuel
2
1.2
Types of Fuels
2
1.3
Properties of Fuels
7
1.4
Combustion
10
1.5
Complete combustion
11
1.6
Incomplete combustion
13
1.7
Combustion analysis by mass and volume
14
1.8
Combustion analysis by mole method
16
1.9
Combustion analysis of some typical Fuels
19
1.10
Excess air
20
1.11
Flue gas
23
1.12
Determination of the mass of excess air supplied from the dry flue gas
25

QUESTIONS 1
30



2
BOILERS AND CONDENSERS
33
2.1
Boilers
33
2.2
The fire-tube boilers
34
2.3
Water-tube boilers
38
2.4
Water circulation
42
2.5
Superheated steam generators
44
2.6
Supercritical steam generators
46
2.7
Heat losses from boiler
46
2.8
Heat balance
47
2.9
Boiler mountings
49
2.10
Boiler accessories
49
2.11
Boiler thermal efficiency
50
2.12
Equivalent evaporation of a  boiler
52
2.13
Steam condenser
59
2.14
Importance of the condensers
59
2.15
Condenser vacuum
69

QUESTIONS 2
74



3
NOZZLES AND STEAM TURBINES
77
3.1
Nozzles
77
3.2
Types of nozzles
77
3.3
Flow analysis through nozzles
78
3.4
Maximum discharge through nozzle
80
3.5
Steam flow through nozzles
84
3.6
Supersaturated flow in nozzles
86
3.7
Turbines
94
3.8
Steam turbines
94
3.9
Impulse turbines
97
3.10
Compounding of impulse turbine
97
3.11
Reaction turbines
102
3.12
Velocity triangles for an impulse turbine blade
104
3.13
Velocity diagram for reaction turbines
107
3.14
Work developed on turbine blades
108
3.15
Diagram efficiency
109
3.16
Stage efficiency
110
3.17
Axial thrust
110
3.18
Blade height
111
3.19
Multi-stage steam turbine
112

QUESTIONS  3
117



4
RANKINE CYCLE
121
4.1
The Rankine cycle
121
4.2
Raising boiler pressure
123
4.3
Superheat
124
4.4
Reheat
124
4.5
Regeneration
127

QUESTIONS  4
141



5
GAS TURBINES
147
5.1
Introduction
147
5.2
Gas turbine operating cycle (Brayton cycle)
148
5.3
Gas turbine components
153
5.3.1
The compressor
153
5.3.2
Combustion chamber
155
5.3.3
The Gas turbine
160
5.4
Gas turbine cycle modifications
162
5.4.1
Regeneration
162
5.4.2
Compressor Intercooling
164
5.4.3
Turbine Reheat
165

QUESTIONS  5
173



6
GAS-STEAM TURBINE COMBINED CYCLE
175
6.1
Introduction
175
6.2
Combined cycle
176
6.3
Heat balance of gas-steam combined cycle
179

QUESTIONS  6
185



7
PHOTOVOLTAIC ENERGY CONVERSION
187
7.1
Introduction
187
7.2
Solar constant and components of solar radiation
187
7.3
Construction of solar cell
192
7.3.1
Electrical contacts
193
7.3.2
Coating effective
196
7.4
Types of soar cells
197
7.5
Watts  peak
200
7.6
Photovoltaic panel energy balance
200
7.7
Photovoltaic panel performance
202
7.8
The intercooling solar cells
205
7.9
Setting up solar modules
208
7.10
PV system applications
208
7.11
Advantages And disadvantages of photovoltaic
209
7.12
Storage Battery
210
7.13
Solar electrical system sizing information
211

QUESTIONS  7
221




TABLES AND FIGURES
223

BIBLIOGRAPHY
251